Diamond is the only stone that occurs in a multitude of colors but is famed for its clear and colorless avatar. It derives
its name from the Greek word ‘adamas’ translated as unconquerable. Symbolizing eternal love, it is also associated
with courage, fortune and victory.
The 4C’s of diamond namely colour, cut, clarity and carat weight determines the quality of the stone. Being the hardest
gemstone, it exhibits the highest refractive index, dispersion and fluorescence. Sourced in countries like India, Brazil,
Nigeria, Nairobi, Russia and Australia, the prime source is Kimberlite, a volcanic rock.
The Gemological Institute of America instituted a color scale according to which colorless diamonds are valued highest.
The worth and value of a diamond is enhanced with an efficient cut. Cut specifies the reflective qualities. In an ideally
cut diamond, light enters into the stone from one facet and upon covering all the sides, reflects back from the same facet
to the eyes of the beholder. This is what gives it that spectacular sparkle.
Five types of cut are Ideal, Premium, Very Good, Good and Fair & Poor cut. With ideal and premium cuts, light is reflected
creating a brilliant sparkle. Clarity of a diamond is gauged by the amount, size and visibility of imperfections i.e inclusions
and blemishes. Inclusions include air bubbles, cracks, fractures or traces of other minerals. Blemishes are on the surface
of the stone such as scratches and chips. Completely clean and clear diamonds are very rare in nature.
Certificates or ‘Grading Reports’ with complete evaluation and details serve as proof of quality and value.
Standard Grading labs are Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and the American Gem Society (AGS) besides others. Colour,
cut, clarity and carat weight carry equal factorage in determining the value. Some commonly seen cuts are marquise, princess
cut, heart, square, emerald etc. Few unusual styles are flower, kite, trilliant, triangle, cushion cut and many more.
Diamonds are often paired with other precious and semi precious stones. Any type of setting like prong or bezel can be
done. Rating 10 Mohs on the hardness scale, it can safely be used for daily wear jewelry.